Accident and Incident Reporting

Overview #

To facilitate preliminary investigation crews are normally grounded. Depending on the severity and complexity, this may last from a week to many months. The investigation process would require crews to submit incident and event reports followed by interviews and fact finding sessions.

Crew may not know what to do or may be unfamiliar with the inquiry process. They may be unsure with how to write and submit reports without incriminating themselves. Careful consideration must be made when writing an incident report. Crew’s statements should be concise, factual and as accurate as possible to the best of their recollection.  Be very mindful not self incriminate or apportion blame. 

ALPA-S has setup a Pilot Assistance Team (PAT) Project to guide and provide assistance to members in such situations. This is optional and not a requirement. The key personnel to contact would be VP Technical of ALPA-S. 

ALPA-S Hotline: 90725727

For incidents where CVR and DFDR can assist in the investigations, PIC shall raise an entry in the Tech Log and inform SIAOCC and/or Station Manager. By doing so, PIC could help prevent the onboard data from being overwritten and lost. The FDAP data is derived from VQAR and kept by SSQ as its custodian. VQAR and DFDR store the same set of recorded flight data parameters. FDAP systematically uses flight data from daily flights for proactive analysis to review flight trends.

What to report? #

List of reportable safety matters that the responsible person must report to the Authority —

(a) every accident; and
(b) every incident of the following nature:
(1) a near-collision;
(2) an incident that occurs during a critical phase of flight that has a high potential of causing an accident;
(3) a take-off, landing, or attempted take-off or landing, on a closed, unassigned or engaged runway or helipad;
(4) an incident when Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) was only marginally avoided;
(5) any difficulty in controlling the aircraft;
(6) any flight crew incapacitation;
(7) an evacuation of crew, passengers or both;
(8) any use of fire extinguishing agent or fire suppression agent;
(9) a fire or smoke event, including an event where the fire was extinguished;
(10) an event requiring the emergency use of oxygen;
(11) any gross failures to achieve predicted performance during take-off or initial climb;
(12) a declaration of emergency;
(13) any failure of, or significant damage to, aircraft structure or disintegration of any part of the engine or external part of the aircraft, or uncontained turbine engine failures, that is not classified as an accident;
(14) any failure of more than one system in a multiple-redundancy system mandatory for flight guidance and navigation, not being circumstances permitted under the minimum equipment list;
(15) an incident of multiple malfunctions of one or more aircraft systems that seriously affected the operation of the aircraft;
(16) a dangerous goods incident;
(17) any carriage of dangerous goods in a manner that does not conform with the provisions of Annex 18 to the Chicago Convention and its Technical Instructions;
(18) any violation of local safety legislation or requirements;
(19) an air turn-back;
(20) a diversion;
(21) a rejected take-off;
(22) a significant safety or security‑related event;
(23) any circumstances requiring a manoeuvre to avoid collision with another aircraft other than a near-collision;
(24) any activation of ground proximity warning system other than an incident described in sub‑paragraph (4);
(25) any shutdown of an engine in flight;
(26) a hard landing;
(27) any windshear requiring pilot to initiate recovery action;
(28) an activation of stall warning or stick shaker;
(29) an air traffic control-related event;
(29A) a loss of communication with air traffic control;
(30) any unintentional deviation of airspeed, intended track or altitude that result in the activation of a deviation notification;
(31) a taxi error;
(32) an unstabilised approach;
(33) a lightning strike;
(34) a bird strike;
(35) any incapacitation of a cabin crew member that renders that cabin crew member unable to perform critical safety duties;
(36) an aircraft abnormality or engine vibration;
(37) a blown tire or wheel failure;
(38) any damage to aircraft by a foreign object;
(39) any use of incorrect or contaminated fuel, oil or other fluid;
(40) any underfuelling;
(41) a loading or load sheet error;
(42) any significant spillage or leakage of oil, fuel or other fluid;
(43) any other occurrence that endangers or may endanger the operation of an aircraft, or which causes or may cause a danger to persons or property.

When to report? #

Regulatory Requirement:

The responsible person must notify the Authority immediately through the most expeditious means available upon becoming aware of —
(a) an accident, or possible accident, involving an aircraft that the responsible person operates; or
(b) any incident listed in paragraph 1(b)(1) to (22).
(2) The responsible person must submit a formal written notification to the Authority —
(a) for any matter referred to in paragraph 2(1)(a), within 3 hours after the initial notification;
(b) for any incident listed in paragraph 1(b)(1) to (18), within 24 hours after becoming aware of the incident;
(c) for any incident listed in paragraph 1(b)(19) to (22), within 72 hours after the incident or after the completion of the affected flight, or as advised otherwise by the Authority; or
(d) for any incident listed in paragraph 1(b)(23) to (43), within 3 working days after the incident or after the completion of the affected flight.
(3) All formal written notifications must be made in a manner acceptable to the Authority.

Company Requirement:

PIC or crew involved are expected to submit a report in the most expeditious means so as to facilitate the company to notify CAAS.

Additional Resources: #

The latest Air Navigation Regulation (ANR) is available on the Singapore Statutes Online website.

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